Multi-level metabolic changes are generated in the body during and after strenuous resistance exercise. They relate to energy supply, protein and nucleic acid turn over, and hormonal activity to be immediately translated into the short- term capacity for physical performance. The magnitude of the changes is phenotypically determined in different athletes. On the other hand, as it was recently demonstrated, some of the metabolic changes and the related physical performance also strongly depend on various adjacent factors, primarily on the composition and timing of the pre and post-workout intake of food and restorative dietary supplements (7, 8, 12, 14, 16, 17, 28, 31, 35, 36, 39, 43).
It became a matter of comprehension, that vigorous exercise may be damaging to the body when singled out from a friendly adjacent environment, because such exercise is highly catabolic by its nature, recently much attention was addressed to the time-related effect of food intake as a possible factor in improving post-exercise anabolic rebound. It was shown that correct timing of food and dietary supplements intake before and after workouts resulted in improved athletic performance (19, 20, 24, 25, 53). The important role of post-exercise nutrients intake was emphasized (14, 16), particularly for protein and amino acids combined with carbohydrates vs. direct energy precursors (6, 10, 21, 25, 39, 52, 53). Proper exercise over food timing facilitates the reverse transformation of the catabolic impact of exercise into an efficient anabolic rebound at the immediate after-exercise restorative activation phase (7, 8, 12, 17, 28, 31, 35, 36, 39, 43). It appears that disregarding these facts makes ambiguous the overall positive cognizant of exercise with respect to every expected merit – physique, performance, fitness, and health.
Measuring the immediate metabolic and hormonal after-exercise changes under varying adjacent conditions provides with important information about the beneficial value of different training/nutrition programs in individual athletes. In high-performance strength resistance sports, the availability of hands-on analytical technologies for monitoring immediate after-exercise metabolic, hormonal, and other physiological changes are of particular importance to control the process of building-up fitness, sports performance, and overall health.
This article describes such a novel methodological approach (44). The purpose of this study was to addresses those issues in elite power athletes and to investigate the still unknown time related interactive effect of the post-prandial duration and the following up power resistance exercise, and points out to the existence in athletes of a chrono-biological sensing mechanism that links the magnitude of the extemporaneous after-exercise restorative activation (immediate anabolic rebound) to the post-prandial duration that preceded exercise. The sensor reacts when the super-compensation peaks from three chrono-biologically discrete metabolic pathways, the post-prandial, the exercise-catabolic, and the restorative-anabolic intervene in a close sequence during certain post-prandial periods. It results in a cumulative anabolic super-compensation effect that is quickly translated into an augmented anabolic rebound phenomenon with subsequent improvement in physique, athletic performance, fitness, and health
In other words, the mechanism sets up the magnitude of the immediate after-exercise anabolic rebound. The bottom line is that a standard power resistance workout can result in different by magnitude post-work anabolic effects when executed at different post-prandial periods before exercise. Based on this finding the “metabolic right time concept” was formulated (44). The paper attempts to explain how the mechanism of the nutrient timing phenomenon works and extends the avenues of its application in sport. It also suggests that the cumulative anabolic super-compensation effect from food and exercise can be predicted for individual athletes on the basis of metabolic and hormonal test results.